Van Hoogstraten was active in London until the end of 1667.
The print is in George S. Keyes, Hollstein’s Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings, and Woodcuts ca. 1450–1700, ed. Karel G. Boon, 58 vols. (Amsterdam, 1949–), 24:154, no. 4 with illustration. The engraver George Vertue (1684–1756) noted the inscription on the print when he saw an impression in the Wardrobe of the Princess Dowager (Catherine of Aragon) in Baynard’s Castle, London, which he visited some time between 1731 and 1736; George Vertue, “Vertue Note Books volume IV” The Walpole Society 24 (1935–36): 60. We also know a portrait drawing of Gerrit Dou by Schalcken, which is recorded in the famous collection of artists’ portraits and self-portraits that belonged to the Leiden burgomaster Johan van der Marck (ca. 1694–1770) and was sold at auction on 29 November 1773 in Amsterdam. Lot 1829 is described as follows: “[The Portrait] of Gerard Dou, by G. Schalcken, drawn with the pen and black chalk, height 7½ width 6 thumbs [approx. 19 x 15.5 cm]” ([Het Portrait] van Gerard Douw, door G. Schalken: met de Pen en zwart Kryt getekent, h. 7½ b. 6 duim). RKD (Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie/Netherlands Institute for Art History) Databases, Excerpts, HdG-fiche 1485240. The dimensions suggest that this was a preparatory study.
According to Gerrardys H. Veth, “Godfried Schalcken,” Archief voor Nederlandsche kunstgeschiedenis, 6 (1884–87), 2, Schalcken was recorded as early as 1665 as pennant- or standard-bearer of the seventh standard of the civic militia. Veth’s source, however, gives the year as 1675. See Matthijs Balen, Beschryvinge der stad Dordrecht, vervatende haar begin, opkomst, toeneming, en verdere stant: Opgezocht, in ‘t licht gebracht, en vertoond, met vele voorname voorrechten, hand-vesten, keuren, en oude-herkomen; Als mede een verzameling van eenige geslachtboomen, der adelijke, aal-oude, en aanzienlijke heeren-geslachten, van, en in, Dordrecht, enz.; Zijnde de voornoemde beschryvinge, geçierd, en verrykt, met verscheyde kopre konst-platen. 2 vols. (Dordrecht, 1677), 1:688. Still, the first mention of Schalcken in the Dordrecht archives, in 1672, refers to the civic militia. On 30 September of that year, a group of militiamen, including Schalcken, declared, among other things, that they “hebbende nu enige jaren herwaerts gewoont en gewaeckt onder het vaendel van de Nieuwestraet” (having lived there several years and guarded [been part of the militia company] under the banner of the Nieuwstraat); see the protocol book of the notary Hugo van Dyck, ONA 20.274, unnumbered folio. Schalcken’s parents lived on Nieuwstraat, so apparently he was living with them again. The declaration reveals that by this time he had been back in Dordrecht for “several years.” The artist had, in fact, returned to his home town even before this, since one year later, in 1673, his first recorded painting is described in the inventory of the estate of Jacob van Neurenberg: “Een keucken met een dienstmaecht die visch schoonmaeckt” (A kitchen with a maidservant cleaning fish). Both records can be found in the unpublished archival notes of Abraham Bredius, which are preserved in the RKD (Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie/Netherlands Institute for Art History), Schalcken file. Considering its subject, this genre piece was probably produced between 1665 and 1670. See, for example, Thierry S. Beherman, Godfriend Schalcken (Paris, 1988), nos. 141, 142, 143 (dated 1667), 144, and 160 (dated 1669).
Ronni Baer, The Paintings of Gerrit Dou (1613–1675) (Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1990), nos. 81 and 110. See also Ronni Baer, Gerrit Dou, 1613–1675: Master Painter in the Age of Rembrandt, ed. Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. (Exh. cat. Washington D.C., National Gallery of Art; London, Dulwich Picture Gallery; The Hague, Mauritshuis, 2000–1) (New Haven, 2000), no. 28.
On early genre pieces painted from 1665 to 1670, see, for example, Thierry S. Beherman, Godfried Schalcken (Paris, 1988), nos. 141, 142, 143 (dated 1667), 144, and 160 (dated 1669).
It is noteworthy that none of Schalcken’s students painted scenes with artificial lighting in the 1670s. His pupils are Maria Schalcken (ca. 1645–before 1700), the artist’s sister, who apparently studied with Godefridus around 1665–70; Anthony Vreem (1660–81), who was presumably Schalcken’s pupil between 1675 and 1681; and Carel de Moor the Younger (1655–1738), who, after the death of Frans van Mieris in 1681, spent some time with Schalcken in Dordrecht before becoming a member of the Leiden painters’ guild in 1683. There are no documented works by Simon Germain (1656–ca. 1719), who was apprenticed to Schalcken in the 1670s.
Dendrochronology report by Ian Tyers of November 2012, documentation at the Leiden Collection.
“De ‘Rijkdom’ van ’s Gravenhage in 1742,” Algemeen Nederlandsch Familieblad 2 (1884): no. 133 (15 May 1884), 5b.
Jacob Schalcken, the son of Godefridus’s youngest brother, Johannes (1660–1724), returned from London in the company of Schalcken and his family in the fall of 1696, when he must already have been his uncle’s student. We know that Callenfels was with Schalcken for four years, and, given Callenfels’s age, this must have been shortly after the master settled in The Hague. Antonie de Waardt initially studied with Simon van der Does until the latter moved to Antwerp. This information is derived primarily from unpublished archival notes of Abraham Bredius, held at the RKD (Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie/Netherlands Institute for Art History), Schalcken file. New information can also be found in the alphabetical list in Charles Dumas et al., Haagse schilders in de Gouden Eeuw: Het Hoogsteder lexicon van alle schilders werkzaam in Den Haag (The Hague, 1988). On De Waardt, see Abraham Bredius, Künstler-Inventare: Urkunden zur Geschichte der holländischen Kunst des XVIten, XVIIten und XVIIIten Jahrhunderts, 7 vols. (The Hague, 1915–21), 3:1025–30, esp. nos. 17, 80, 81, and 145. In addition to the three students mentioned above, Arent Pijl (ca. 1680–after 1721) and a man with the last name Vincentius studied with Schalcken in The Hague. Arent Pijl was a student of the The Hague Drawing Academy from 1696 to 1702 and will have spent those years in Schalcken’s studio, after which he finished his training with Carel de Moor in Leiden. In a notarial record of 23 April 1698, Jacobus Schalcken and Arent Pijl declared that two paintings in the home of Pieter van der Luyt were copies after Schalcken, and were thus already considered qualified to authenticate their master’s work; Abraham Bredius, “Een expertise van 1698” Oud Holland 47 (1930): 157. The student Vincentius, who registered as student of the The Hague Drawing Academy in 1702, cosigned a notarial record with Schalcken in 1704. He is likely to be the father of Johannes Vincentius, who was active as portraitist later in the eighteenth century.
Thierry S. Beherman, Godfried Schalcken (Paris, 1988), no. 195 (oil on panel, 36 x 30.8 cm; HdG no. 222). The catalogue of the museum in Schwerin compiled by Friedrich Schlie, Beschreibendes Verzeichniss der Werke älterer Meister in der Grossherzoglichen Gemälde-Gallerie zu Schwerin (Schwerin, 1882), 570, no. 937, contains a facsimile of the signature, which reveals that this was another version of GS-101. The painting was part of the old holdings of the dukes of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, who had perhaps acquired it from the painter’s widow. A bill has survived for another painting from Schalcken’s estate that she sold in 1733 to Johan Nicolaas (van) Hafften, the agent of the duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin; see my entry in Ekkehard Mai, Sander Paarlberg, and Gregor J. M. Weber, Vom Adel der Malerei: Holland um 1700 (Exh. cat. Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum; Dordrechts, Dordrechts Museum; Kassel, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Schloss Wilhelmshöhe) (Cologne, 2006), 262, no. 74.
Thierry S. Beherman, Godfried Schalcken (Paris, 1988), fig. 195a (oil on copper, 37 x 32 cm; recorded in HdG no. 222). In 1938 the painting was with West’s Galleries in London; see Winter Exhibition: Dutch and Flemish Portraits and Genre-Pictures of the 16th and 17th Centuries, West’s Galleries (London, 1938), no. 21.
According to the documentation, the version on canvas (Thierry S. Beherman, Godfried Schalcken (Paris, 1988), fig. 195b; Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century Based on the Work of John Smith, 8 vols. [London, 1907–27], 5: no. 222c) was still at Wilton House in 1907; see Neville Rodwell Wilkinson, Wilton House Pictures (London, 1907), no. 278 (47 x 37.5 cm).
Visible in small areas of loss along the center of the lower edge and a small loss along the left vertical edge (11.5 cm up from the lower edge).
The painting was examined on-site. Further investigation under a stereomicroscope could help determine whether the signature extends over cracks.