Guido M. C. Jansen, “Ein Künstlerleben und seine Zeit,” in Schalcken: Gemalte Verführung, ed. Anja Sevçik (Exh. cat. Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum; Dordrecht, Dordrechts Museum) (Stuttgart, 2015–16), 14–35, provides the most recent overview of Schalcken’s life and career.
For this phenomenon, see Sander Karst, “Off to a New Cockaigne: Dutch Migrant Artists in London, 1660–1715,” Simiolus 37 (2013–14): 25–60.
This topic is addressed in, for example, Ben Broos et al., Paintings from England: William III and the Royal Collections (Exh. cat. The Hague, Mauritshuis) (The Hague, 1988–89); Robert P. Maccubbin and Martha Hamilton-Phillips, eds., The Age of William III and Mary II: Power, Politics and Patronage 1688–1702 (Exh. cat. New York, The Grolier Club; Washington D.C., The Folger Shakespeare Library) (Williamsburg, Va., 1988–89), 217–307; Christopher Brown, “Patrons and Collectors of Dutch Painting in Britain during the Reign of William and Mary,” in Art and Patronage in the Caroline Courts: Essays in Honour of Sir Oliver Millar, ed. David Howarth (Cambridge and New York, 2003), 12–31; Hugh Dunthorne, “William III in Contemporary Portraits and Prints,” in Redefining William III: The Impact of the King-Stadholder in International Context, ed. Esther Mijers and David Onnekink (Aldershot and Burlington, Vt., 2007), 263–76; and Koenraad Jonckheere, The Auction of King William’s Paintings (1713): Elite International Art Trade at the End of the Dutch Golden Age (Amsterdam and Philadelphia, 2008), 17–26, passim.
Anja Sevçik, ed., Schalcken: Gemalte Verführung (Exh. cat. Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum; Dordrecht, Dordrechts Museum) (Stuttgart, 2015–16), 226–28, cat. no. 54. The following biographical information about Stuart was adopted from David L. Smith, “Stuart, James, Fourth Duke of Lennox and First Duke of Richmond (1612–1655),” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004), accessed online 16 August 2016. See also Julius Bryant, Kenwood: Paintings in the Iveagh Bequest (New Haven and London, 2003), 51–52.
For Van Dyck’s portrait, see Susan Barnes et al., Van Dyck: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings (New Haven and London, 2004), 584–85, no. IV.200.
Susan Barnes et al., Van Dyck: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings (New Haven and London, 2004), 586, no. IV.201; Julius Bryant, Kenwood: Paintings in the Iveagh Bequest (New Haven and London, 2003), 50–55, no. 6, where the picture is construed as a portrait historié of Stuart as the doomed mythological hunter, Adonis. This was not the only instance during Schalcken’s London period that he based a painting on a work by a famous artist. He also made a now-lost copy after a Madonna of Raphael for William Sykes (1659–1725), an art dealer who seems to have been acquainted with Schalcken through the Virtuosi of Saint Luke, an informal club consisting of artists and connoisseurs who met regularly in London. This latter picture was lot 200 in A Catalogue of Mr. Sykes’s Extraordinary Collection of Original and Other Pictures (London, 1724); see “The Art World in Britain 1660 to 1735,” accessed online 22 August 2016. For the Virtuosi of Saint Luke, see Ilaria Bignamini, “George Vertue, Art Historian and Art Institutions in London, 1679–1768: A Study of Clubs and Academies,” The Walpole Society 54 (1988): 21–44. The earliest years of the club, namely 1689 to 1697, are rather murky, but it would continue until 1743. Thanks to the antiquarian George Vertue’s documentation, it is known that early on there were just 16 members in the Virtuosi of Saint Luke, six of them artists (including Schalcken’s competitors John Closterman and Michael Dahl). Guests were sometimes invited to their gatherings, a practice that would continue throughout the club’s existence. Unfortunately, a perusal of Vertue’s spotty notes concerning the Virtuosi of Saint Luke does not yield Schalcken’s name for the simple but unfortunate reason that his jottings only begin with the year 1697. Schalcken returned to the Dutch Republic in 1696. Be that as it may, connections can be made between Schalcken and two of the club’s leading members, William Sykes and Richard Graham, which suggests his knowledge of and possible involvement in its activities.
Susan Barnes et al., Van Dyck: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings (New Haven and London, 2004), 586. For Henry Sidney, see David Hosford, “Sidney, Henry, First Earl of Romney (1641–1704),” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004), accessed online on 17 August 2016; Michael G. Brennan, “Henry Sidney (1641–1704), Earl of Romney, and Robert Spencer (1641–1702), Second Earl of Sunderland,” in The Ashgate Research Companion to The Sidneys, 1500–1700, ed. Margaret P. Hannay et al., 2 vols. (Aldershot and Burlington, Vt., 2015), 1:169–76.
Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, The Early History of Piccadilly, Leicester Square, Soho and Their Neighborhood (Cambridge, 1925), 97.
T. S., “Sidney or Sydney, Henry,” in Dictionary of National Biography, ed. Sidney Lee, 66 vols. (London, 1885–1901), 52:219.
Arthur Collins, Letters of Memorials of State, 2 vols. (London, 1746), 1:175.
[George Vertue,] “Vertue’s Notebook A. q. [British Museum Add. MS. 23, 071],” The Walpole Society 24 (1935–36): 81. That Van Dyck’s portrait had been returned to Leicester House after Henry Sidney’s death is confirmed by the fate of the art collection belonging to the house’s previous two occupants, his older brother, Philip Sidney, 3rd Earl of Leicester (1619–98), and his brother’s son, Robert Sidney, 4th Earl of Leicester (1649–1702). Over the decades Philip Sidney had assembled an enormous collection containing some 2,000 paintings, prints, drawings, and antique statues, which were sold off to clear debts first by his heir Robert Sidney and then by the latter’s heirs upon his own death. Thus, by 1703 Leicester House was almost completed denuded of art. For Philip Sidney’s collection and its dispersal, see Hilary Maddicott, “The Political and Cultural Career of Philip Sidney, Lord Viscount Lisle, Third Earl of Leicester, 1619–1698: Nobility and Identity in the Seventeenth Century” (Ph.D. diss., Birkbeck College, University of London, 2014), 195–203. For Leicester House and its immediate environs, see Walter Thornbury and Edward Walford, Old and New London: A Narrative of Its History, Its People and Its Places, 6 vols. (London, 1887–93), 3:160–73; Susie West, “Penshurst Place and Leicester House,” in The Ashgate Research Companion to The Sidneys, 1500–1700, ed. Margaret P. Hannay et al., 2 vols. (Aldershot and Burlington, Vt., 2015), 1:286–89.
Henry Sidney’s nephew (though they were the same age) was Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland (1641–1702), with whom he spent much of his youth; see Michael G. Brennan, “Henry Sidney (1641–1704), Earl of Romney, and Robert Spencer (1641–1702), Second Earl of Sunderland,” in The Ashgate Research Companion to The Sidneys, 1500–1700, ed. Margaret P. Hannay et al., 2 vols. (Aldershot and Burlington, Vt., 2015), 1:169–76. Spencer owned Schalcken’s Boy Blowing on a Firebrand (Edinburgh, National Gallery of Scotland), which might have inspired the former to commission the picture from Schalcken (or vice versa). The Leiden Collection owns a variant version of Schalcken’s Edinburgh painting; see GS-106.
This inventory is preserved at the Kent History Centre, doc. no. U908/L23/19. It can also be consulted online: “Inventory of Jocelyn Earl of Leicester at Soho Square, 1743,” The Art World in Britain 1660 to 1735 (Kent History Centre U908/L23/19), accessed 15 September 2016.
As the Data Sheet accompanying the entry on this portrait explains, in the Sales Catalogs Database of The Getty Provenance Index, Nicole Cook discovered two listings of late eighteenth-century auctions in Paris that describe a portrait of a sitter at night, in half-length caressing a dog (Paris, 9 December 1788, lot 137; Paris, 14 April 1791, lot 111). However, that sitter is identified as the Duke of Buckingham (presumably the famous 1st Duke of Buckingham). It is certainly possible that the auctioneer misidentified the person portrayed; just such a case of mistaken identity could be reasonably expected in document that post-dates the creation of the painting by nearly 100 years. Still, we must keep in mind that Schalcken made several portraits of members of the English aristocracy by candlelight. One of these, representing the Duke of Grafton is now lost but is known from the inventory compiled by the artist’s principal English patron, Sir John Lowther (1655-1700), 2nd Baronet (and from 1696, 1st Viscount Lonsdale) in 1696: Cumbria Archive Service, inv. no. DLONS/L2/6. Therefore these auction descriptions could actually be describing a now-lost portrait of the Duke of Buckingham.