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The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts

March 28July 22, 2018
Rembrandt van Rijn (Dutch, 1606-1669), Minerva in Her Study, 1635, 138 x 116.5 cm, The Leiden Collection, New York.

The Age of Rembrandt and Vermeer: Masterpieces of The Leiden Collection

 

The exhibition of The Leiden Collection at The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow and The State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg explores the artistic world of the Dutch Republic through a selection of 82 paintings and drawings by Rembrandt van Rijn and his contemporaries. Focusing on the artistic center of Leiden and the larger circle of artistic creativity that emerged around it, the exhibition elucidates Rembrandt’s artistic beginnings, his relationship to rivals and contemporaries, and the artistic traditions that flourished in cities across the Dutch Republic. Artists such as Jan Lievens, Gerrit Dou, and Frans van Mieris, as well as Frans Hals, Hendrick ter Brugghen, and Johannes Vermeer, provide a remarkable glimpse into the ideas and traditions that shaped the Dutch Golden Age. Seen together with the renowned collections in Moscow and St. Petersburg, the works in this exhibition reflect the enduring interest in collecting Dutch art, one that has existed in Russia for nearly four hundred years.

Photographs of the exhibition by Kirill Ovchinikov.

The Catalogue

A fully illustrated exhibition catalogue accompanies The Age of Rembrandt and Vermeer: Masterpieces of The Leiden Collection.

The catalogue contains a Foreword by Dr. Thomas S. Kaplan entitled “A Golden Age Pilgrimage…To Moscow and St. Petersburg,” and an essay by Dr. Lara Yeager-Crasselt, Curator of The Leiden Collection, entitled “The Leiden Collection and the Dutch Golden Age.” These texts are published in Russian and in English. The catalogue also contains the essays  “Russian Rembrandts” by Dr. Vadim A. Sadkov, Head of the Old Masters Department and Curator of Dutch and Flemish Paintings, The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, and “Works by the Leiden Masters of Fine Painting in the collection of The Imperial Hermitage” by Dr. Irina Sokolova, Curator of Dutch Paintings, The State Hermitage Museum, both published in Russian. Also included are eighty-two illustrated entries and a selected bibliography in Russian.

Artwork in the Exhibition

Extraordinary Beginnings: Rembrandt van Rijn in Leiden

The works by Rembrandt van Rijn and his contemporaries in The Leiden Collection  provide an unparalleled glimpse into Leiden’s rich artistic culture and the circle of creativity that emerged around it. The works that elucidate the artistic beginnings of Rembrandt and Jan Lievens present a unique window into the defining moment of the Dutch Golden Age.

Isaac de Jouderville Portrait of Rembrandt in Oriental Dress

The Earliest Paintings: Allegory of the Senses

Rembrandt's Teacher

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Inspiration and Competition

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Rembrandt’s Mother: Study and the Workshop

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Rembrandt's Teacher

Born in Leiden in 1606, Rembrandt began his artistic training in the city of his birth, subsequently spending six highly formative months with Amsterdam history painter Pieter Lastman.

Inspiration and Competition

The dialogue of artistic exploration that unfolded in Leiden between Rembrandt and Lievens during the second half of the 1620s is evident in their self-portraiture, depictions of figures in exotic costume, and their evocative use of light and shadow — themes that resonated with fellow artists in Leiden and beyond.

Rembrandt’s Mother: Study and the Workshop

This tronie is closely related to an etching that Rembrandt made of his mother in 1628, and was likely executed by an artist working in Rembrandt’s circle. The subject matter, composition, and expressive handling of the figure provide insight into the working methods of Rembrandt’s studio, as well as the continued interest in the portrayal of age by artists in Leiden in the late 1620s.
Artist Isaac de Jouderville (Leiden ca. 1612 – 1648 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Portrait of Rembrandt in Oriental Dress, ca. 1631
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Rembrandt van Rijn (Leiden 1606 – 1669 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Three Musicians (Allegory of Hearing), ca. 1624-25
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Rembrandt van Rijn (Leiden 1606 – 1669 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Unconscious Patient (Allegory of Smell), ca. 1624–25
Medium
oil on panel, inset into an eighteenth century panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Rembrandt van Rijn (Leiden 1606 – 1669 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Stone Operation (Allegory of Touch), ca. 1624–25
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Pieter Lastman (Ansterdam 1583 – 1633 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
David Gives Uriah a Letter for Joab, 1619
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Hendrick ter Brugghen (The Hague 1588 – 1629 Utrecht)
Artwork title
Allegory of Faith, ca. 1626
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Jan Lievens (Leiden 1607 – 1674 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Card Players, ca. 1625
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Jan Lievens (Leiden 1607 – 1674 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Bookkeeper at His Desk, ca. 1627
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Jan Lievens (Leiden 1607 – 1674 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Self-Portrait, ca. 1629–30
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Jan Lievens (Leiden 1607 – 1674 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Boy in a Cape and Turban (Portrait of Prince Rupert of the Palatinate), ca. 1631
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Studio of Rembrandt van Rijn
Artwork title
Rembrandt’s Mother, ca. 1628
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York

The Center of the Golden Age: Rembrandt in Amsterdam

Rembrandt left Leiden for Amsterdam in 1631, where he entered the workshop of art dealer Hendrick van Uylenburgh, and began receiving commissions from Amsterdam’s urban elite. Rembrandt’s portraits, preparatory studies, and history paintings, seen here, illustrate the expressive technique the artist employed to poignantly convey the human experience.

Rembrandt van Rijn Self-Portrait with Shaded Eyes

Portraiture

Preparatory Studies

Minerva in Her Study

Rembrandt's Circle and the Dialogue of Innovation

Divine Lessons

Studies of the Natural World: Rembrandt and Leonardo da Vinci

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Studies of the Natural World: Rembrandt and Leonardo da Vinci

Studies of animals, including those by Leonardo da Vinci and Rembrandt in this exhibition, illustrate Dutch and Italian artists’ wide-ranging interests in the natural world, as well as the importance of drawing from life. The drawing by Leonardo represents the only work by an Italian artist in The Leiden Collection.
Artist Rembrandt van Rijn (Leiden 1606 – 1669 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Self-Portrait with Shaded Eyes, 1634
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Rembrandt van Rijn (Leiden 1606 – 1669 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Portrait of a Man in a Red Coat, 1633
Medium
oil on oval panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Rembrandt van Rijn and Workshop (Leiden 1606 – 1669 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Portrait of Antonie Coopal, 1635
Medium
oil on Brazilian chestnut (sucupira)
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Rembrandt van Rijn (Leiden 1606 – 1669 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Young Girl in a Gold-Trimmed Cloak, 1632
Medium
oil on oval panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Rembrandt van Rijn (Leiden 1606 – 1669 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Head of a Girl, ca. 1645
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Rembrandt van Rijn (Leiden 1606 – 1669 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Study of a Woman in a White Cap, ca. 1640
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Rembrandt van Rijn (Leiden 1606 – 1669 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Portrait of an Old Man (Possibly a Rabbi), ca. 1645
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Rembrandt van Rijn (Leiden 1606 – 1669 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Minerva in Her Study, 1635
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Ferdinand Bol (Dordrecht 1616 – 1680 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Man with a Fur-Trimmed Hat, ca. 1646–48
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Ferdinand Bol (Dordrecht 1616 – 1680 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Self-Portrait, Behind a Parapet, 1648
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gerbrand van den Eeckhout (Amsterdam 1621 – 1674 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Simeon in the Temple, 1672
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Willem de Poorter (Haarlem [?] 1608 – after 1648 Haarlem [?])
Artwork title
Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, ca. 1630
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Ferdinand Bol (Dordrecht 1616 – 1680 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Angel Appearing to Elijah, ca. 1642
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Carel Fabritius (Middenbeemster 1622 – 1654 Delft)
Artwork title
Hagar and the Angel, ca. 1645
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Rembrandt van Rijn (Leiden 1606 – 1669 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Young Lion Resting, ca. 1638–42
Medium
black chalk, white chalk heightening, and gray wash, on brown laid paper
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, 1452–1519)
Artwork title
Head of a Bear, ca. 1485
Medium
Silverpoint on pale pink preparation
The Leiden Collection, New York

Fine Painting in Leiden: Gerrit Dou, Frans van Mieris, and their Contemporaries

Rembrandt’s first pupil in Leiden, Gerrit Dou, did not paint in the fluid manner popularized by his master. Instead, he developed a distinctive style known as fijnschilderij, or fine painting. Marked by an extraordinary precision of brushstroke, Dou’s inventive and illustionistic compositions were further mastered by the “prince among his pupils,” Frans van Mieris. Van Mieris’ meticulously rendered compositions, such as Young Woman Feeding a Parrot (1663), were widely emulated by contemporaries, inspiring the artistic dialogues evident in Gerrit Dou’s Young Woman in a Niche with a Parrot and Cage (ca. 1660-65) and the Pushkin Museum’s Woman Sewing, with a Parrot by Gabriel Metsu (after 1663, Moscow, Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts).

Attributed to Gerrit Dou Self-Portrait (?) at an Easel

The Scholarly Tradition

Gerrit Dou: Rembrandt's First Pupil

Humble Interiors and Quiet Exchanges

Elegance and Virtue

Bridging History and Genre Painting

Dou's Posterity: Godefridus Schalcken

Artist Attributed to Gerrit Dou (Leiden 1613 – 1675 Leiden)
Artwork title
Self-Portrait (?) at an Easel, ca. 1628–29
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gerrit Dou (Leiden 1613 – 1675 Leiden)
Artwork title
Scholar Sharpening His Quill, ca. 1632-35
Medium
oil on oval panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gerrit Dou (Leiden 1613 – 1675 Leiden)
Artwork title
Old Man Praying, ca. 1665–70
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gerrit Dou (Leiden 1613 – 1675 Leiden)
Artwork title
Scholar Interrupted at His Writing, ca. 1635
Medium
oil on oval panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gerrit Dou (Leiden 1613 – 1675 Leiden)
Artwork title
Young Woman in a Niche with a Parrot and Cage, ca. 1660–65
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gerrit Dou (Leiden 1613 – 1675 Leiden)
Artwork title
Goat in a Landscape, ca. 1660–65
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gerrit Dou (Leiden 1613 – 1675 Leiden)
Artwork title
Cat Crouching on the Ledge of an Artist’s Atelier, 1657
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Frans van Mieris (Leiden 1635 – 1681 Leiden)
Artwork title
Elderly Couple in an Interior, ca. 1650–55
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gerrit Dou (Leiden 1613 – 1675 Leiden)
Artwork title
Herring Seller and Boy, ca. 1664
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gabriel Metsu (Leiden 1629 – 1667 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Smoker Seated at a Table, ca. 1654–57
Medium
oil on copper
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Frans van Mieris (Leiden 1635 – 1681 Leiden)
Artwork title
Traveler at Rest, ca. 1657
Medium
oil on copper
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Frans van Mieris (Leiden 1635 – 1681 Leiden)
Artwork title
Young Woman Feeding a Parrot, 1663
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Frans van Mieris (Leiden 1635 – 1681 Leiden)
Artwork title
Portrait of a Lady, 1673
Medium
oil on panel with arched top
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gerrit Dou (Leiden 1613 – 1675 Leiden)
Artwork title
Portrait of a Lady, Seated with a Music Book on Her Lap, ca. 1640–44
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Caspar Netscher (Prague or Heidelberg ca. 1639 – 1684 The Hague)
Artwork title
Portrait of Susanna Doublet Huygens, 1669
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Godefridus Schalcken (Made 1643 – 1706 The Hague)
Artwork title
Portrait of Barthout van Slingelandt, 1682
Medium
oil on copper
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Frans van Mieris (Leiden 1635 – 1681 Leiden)
Artwork title
“Self-Portrait” with a Plumed Beret, 1668
Medium
oil on oval panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Frans van Mieris (1667/68)
Artwork title
Tronie Self-Portrait of the Artist, Bust-length, Wearing a Turban Crowned with a Feather, and Fur-trimmed Robe, 1667/68
Medium
Oil on oak panel, oval The Leiden Collection, New York
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gerrit Dou (Leiden 1613 – 1675 Leiden)
Artwork title
Portrait of Dirck van Beresteyn, ca. 1652
Medium
oil on silver-copper alloy, oval
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Frans van Mieris (Leiden 1635 – 1681 Leiden)
Artwork title
Child’s Lesson (Hannah Entrusting Her Son Samuel into the Care of the High Priest Eli?), ca. 1656–57
Medium
oil on panel with arched top
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Caspar Netscher (Prague or Heidelberg ca. 1639 – 1684 The Hague)
Artwork title
Sarah Leading Hagar to Abraham, 1673
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Frans van Mieris (Leiden 1635 – 1681 Leiden)
Artwork title
Death of Lucretia, 1679
Medium
oil on panel with arched top
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Godefridus Schalcken (Made 1643 – 1706 The Hague)
Artwork title
Parable of the Lost Piece of Silver, ca. 1675
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Godefridus Schalcken (Made 1643 – 1706 The Hague)
Artwork title
Diana and Her Nymphs in a Clearing, ca. 1680–85
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Godefridus Schalcken (Made 1643 – 1706 The Hague)
Artwork title
Young Man and Woman Studying a Statue of Venus, by Lamplight, ca. 1688–92
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Godefridus Schalcken (Made 1643 – 1706 The Hague)
Artwork title
Conversion of Mary Magdalen, 1700
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York

Picturing Everyday Life in the Dutch Republic

Genre painters such as Gabriel Metsu, Gerard ter Borch, and Jan Steen, who worked in dialogue with Dutch artists in Leiden and beyond, depicted a variety of subjects, from village fairs and music playing, to quiet scenes of family life and leisurely pursuits. Over the course of the century, interest shifted to depictions of the upper class in elegant interiors, as evidenced by Johannes Vermeer’s Young Woman Seated at a Virginal. The evolution of this popular genre was a result of artists’ enduring interest in the world that surrounded them.

Intimacies and Pleasures of Domestic Life

The Spiritual Home

From Market to Table

Humor, Folly, and Delight

Professions and Painting in the Golden Age

Self-Portraiture

Frans Hals as Portraitist in Haarlem

Musical Harmonies

Artist Jacob van Loo (Sluis 1614 – 1670 Paris)
Artwork title
Young Man Reading, ca. 1650
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gabriel Metsu (Leiden 1629 – 1667 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Young Woman Seated in an Interior, Reading a Letter, ca. 1658–61
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gabriel Metsu (Leiden 1629 – 1667 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Elegant Lady Writing at Her Desk, ca. 1662–64
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Caspar Netscher (Prague or Heidelberg ca. 1639 – 1684 The Hague)
Artwork title
Two Women in an Interior with a Basket of Lemons, ca. 1664–65
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gerard ter Borch the Younger (Zwolle 1617 – 1681 Deventer)
Artwork title
Lady Tickling a Sleeping Soldier, ca. 1655
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Jacobus Vrel (Active 1654 – 1662)
Artwork title
Interior with a Sick Woman by a Fireplace, ca. 1654–56
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Jacob Toorenvliet (Leiden 1640 – 1719 Leiden)
Artwork title
Doctor’s Visit, ca. 1666–67
Medium
oil on copper
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gabriel Metsu (Leiden 1629 – 1667 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Old Woman at Her Meal in an Interior, ca. 1654–57
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Jan Steen (Leiden 1626 – 1679 Leiden)
Artwork title
Prayer Before the Meal, 1660
Medium
oil on oak panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gabriel Metsu (Leiden 1629 – 1667 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Woman Selling Game from a Stall, ca. 1653–54
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Jan Steen (Leiden 1626 – 1679 Leiden)
Artwork title
Peasants Merrymaking Outside an Inn (Previously “Fair at Warmond”), ca. 1676
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Cornelis de Man (Delft 1621 – 1706 Delft)
Artwork title
Portrait of the Pharmacist Dr. Ysbrand Ysbrandsz. (1634/35–1705) in an Interior, ca. 1667
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Jacob Toorenvliet (Leiden 1640 – 1719 Leiden)
Artwork title
Allegory of Painting, ca. 1675–79
Medium
oil on copper
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Michiel van Musscher (Rotterdam 1645 – 1705 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Portrait of the Artist in His Studio, 1673
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Pieter van Laer (Haarlem 1599 – 1642 Italy?)
Artwork title
Self-Portrait with Magic Scene, ca. 1635–37
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gabriel Metsu (Leiden 1629 – 1667 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Hunter Getting Dressed after Bathing, ca. 1654–56
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Frans Hals (Antwerp 1582/83 – 1666 Haarlem)
Artwork title
Portrait of Conradus Vietor, 1644
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Frans Hals (Antwerp 1582/83 – 1666 Haarlem)
Artwork title
Portrait of Samuel Ampzing, 1630
Medium
oil on copper
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Gerard ter Borch the Younger (Zwolle 1617 – 1681 Deventer)
Artwork title
Musical Company, ca. 1642–44
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Jan Steen (Leiden 1626 – 1679 Leiden)
Artwork title
Self-Portrait with a Lute: Sense of Hearing, ca. 1664
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Jacob Ochtervelt (Rotterdam 1634 – 1682 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Singing Violinist, ca. 1666–70
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Eglon van der Neer (Amsterdam 1634/36 – 1703 Düsseldorf)
Artwork title
Lady Playing a Lute in an Interior, 1675
Medium
oil on panel
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Johannes Vermeer (Delft 1632 – 1675 Delft)
Artwork title
Young Woman Seated at a Virginal, ca. 1670–72
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York

Historical Lessons and Tales of Morality

Within the context of genre scenes, historical subjects, and portraiture, Dutch artists often imbued their artworks with symbolic, and even moralizing meanings. These cautionary tales provide insight into seventeenth-century Dutch values, and serve as reflections of contemporary social, political, and religious events.

Beware of Riches

Staging the Modern Artist: Expressions of a New Beginning

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Staging the Modern Artist: Expressions of a New Beginning

The artistic innovations of Rembrandt and his circle would prove instrumental for future generations of artists. Rembrandt’s late works, and those by his last pupil, Arent de Gelder, are characterized by the expressive brushwork and gravitas that would open the door for modern painting, and continue to influence artists today.
Artist Jan Steen (Leiden 1626 – 1679 Leiden)
Artwork title
Lazarus and the Rich Man or “In Luxury Beware”, ca. 1677
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Jan Steen (Leiden 1626 – 1679 Leiden)
Artwork title
Banquet of Anthony and Cleopatra, ca. 1673–75
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Rembrandt van Rijn (Leiden 1606 – 1669 Amsterdam)
Artwork title
Portrait of a Seated Woman with Her Hands Clasped, 1660
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
Artist Arent de Gelder (Dordrecht 1645 – 1727 Dordrecht)
Artwork title
Old Testament Figure, Probably King Solomon, ca. 1685–90
Medium
oil on canvas
The Leiden Collection, New York
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