D. de Hoop Scheefr and K. G. Boon, “Nogmaals de inventarislijst van Clement de Jonghe,” De Kroniek van her Rembrandthuis 4 (1972): 126. Gerbrand Korevaar, “Rembrandt’s Mother: Rise and Fall of a Myth,” in Rembrandt’s Mother: Myth and Reality, ed. Christiaan Vogelaar and Gerbrand Korevaar (Exh. cat. Leiden, Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal) (Leiden and Zwolle, 2005), 36.
Rembrandt’s mother was named Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuytbrouck (1569–1640).
Lievens’s images of “Rembrandt’s mother” include Old Woman Reading a Book, ca. 1625–26 (Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam), and two panels of her face in profile (Rembrandt’s Mother, ca. 1613 [Agnes Etherington Art Centre, Gift of Alfred and Isabel Bader, 2005, inv. no. 48-001], and Old Woman with a Headscarf, ca. 1631 [The Burghley House Collection, Lincolnshire, inv. no. 214]). Lievens also made an etching of her (see Friedrich Wilhelm Hollstein, Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings, and Woodcuts, ca. 1450–1700, 66 vols. [Amsterdam, 1944–], 11: no. 49) that was part of a group called the “Diverse tronikens.” Lievens used this etched image as a model for Job’s wife in the large canvas Job on the Dungheap, ca. 1631 (National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa).
This painting was attributed to Rembrandt until 1982, when the Rembrandt Research Project deemed it to be a later imitation. See Stichting Foundation Rembrandt Research Project, A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings, vol. 1, 1625–1631, ed. Josua Bruyn et al. (The Hague, Boston, and London, 1982), no. C42. Subsequently, Ernst van de Wetering correctly argued that the painting should be placed in Rembrandt’s orbit in Leiden at the end of the 1620s. See Ernst van de Wetering, “Delimiting Rembrandt’s Autograph Oeuvre: An Insoluble Problem?” in The Mystery of the Young Rembrandt, ed. Ernst van de Wetering and Bernhard Schnackenburg (Exh. cat. Kassel, Museumslandschaft Hessen; Amsterdam, Museum Het Rembrandthuis) (Wolfratshausen, 2001), 78–79.
The scratched lines with a reed pen occur on her proper right cheek. Rembrandt also used a reed pen to make scratches, albeit later in his career. See Mark Tucker, Lloyd DeWitt, and Ken Sutherland, “Rembrandt’s Jesus,” in Rembrandt and the Face of Jesus, ed. Lloyd DeWitt (Exh. cat. Paris, Musée du Louvre; Philadelphia, Philadelphia Museum of Art; Detroit, Detroit Institute of Arts) (New Haven, 2011), 38.
For a related painting of an old woman, traditionally identified as a portrait of Rembrandt’s mother, see the entry on RR-122.
Ernst van de Wetering in Christiaan Vogelaar and Gerbrand Korevaar, eds., Rembrandt’s Mother: Myth and Reality (Exh. cat. Leiden, Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal) (Leiden and Zwolle, 2005), 94.
Bernhard Schnackenburg, however, has mentioned to the present collector (verbal communication) that he attributes the painting to Jan Lievens.
See the Technical Summary for this painting.
The identification of the wood is based on Peter Klein’s 2004 German dendrochronology report. Indianapolis Museum of Art, inv. no. 10063, RRP IV Corr I A 22/ Br 3.