Eddy Schavemaker, Eglon van der Neer (1635/36–1703): His Life and His Work (Doornspijk, 2010), nos. 46, 57, 73.
On the complicated development of lute variants in the Renaissance and baroque periods, see Robert Spencer, “Chitarrone, Theorbo, and Archlute,” Early Music 4 (October 1976): 408–22; and on their representation in the visual arts, Mariagrazia Carlone, “Lutes, Archlutes, Theorboes in Iconography,” Music in Art 30, nos. 1–2 (2005): 88–96.
Michael Praetorius, Syntagma Musicum II: De Organographia (Wolfenbüttel, 1619; English translation by David Z. Crookes, Oxford, 1991), 52. The two-headed lute is commonly described as a theorbo; however, on the theorbo the bass strings are carried by a more extended neck.
The print shows the instrument in reverse. For a recent discussion of the image, see Stephanie Dickey, in Arthur K. Wheelock Jr., ed., Jan Lievens: A Dutch Master Rediscovered (Exh. cat. Washington D.C., National Gallery of Art; Milwaukee, Milwaukee Art Museum; Amsterdam, Museum Het Rembrandthuis) (New Haven, 2008), 207.
See, among other studies: Eric Jan Sluijter, “‘Een stuck waerin een jufr: Voor de spiegel van Gerrit Douw,’” Antiek 23 (1988): 150–61.
Among the many publications on musical symbolism in seventeenth-century Dutch painting, see Roy Sonnema, “Representations of Music in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1990); and Edwin Buijsen, Louis Peter Grijp, et al., The Hoogsteder Exhibition of Music and Painting in the Golden Age (Exh. cat. The Hague, Hoogsteder & Hoogsteder; Antwerp, Hessenhuis Museum) (The Hague, 1994). Specifically on the lute as an erotic symbol, see Eddy de Jongh, “Realisme en schiknrealisme in de Hollandse schilderkunst van de zeventiende eeuw,” in Rembrandt en zijn tijd (Exh. cat. Brussels, Musée des Beaux Arts de Belgique) (Brussels, 1971), 178.
Eddy Schavemaker, Eglon van der Neer (1635/36–1703): His Life and His Work (Doornspijk, 2010), nos. 57, 73, 46, and 83, respectively; for additional examples see nos. 38, 39, and 61. Besides inventing new iterations of a theme, Van der Neer also made adjustments to compositions as he worked: for example, he changed the position of the musician’s head in A Woman Playing the Lute (Berlin); see Eddy Schavemaker, in Jeroen Giltaij et al., Senses and Sins: Dutch Painters of Daily Life in the Seventeenth Century (Exh. cat. Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans van Beuningen; Frankfurt, Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie) (Hatje Cantz, 2004), 270.
The characterization of the wood is based on visual examination only.