The hairdo was named after the marquise de Fontange, who was praised by her lover, Louis XIV, when she appeared at court in the summer of 1680 with her hair piled high on her head, after which this hair style remained hugely popular among all women of standing until about 1710.
The ninth child born to the Schalckens was named Godefridus after his father and baptized in The Hague on 3 February 1697. Therefore, Schalcken and his family probably left London at the end of 1696, since it is unlikely that he would have subjected his heavily pregnant wife to a dangerous journey.
For Vertue and Elsum’s epigram, see Kenneth J.Garlick, “A Catalogue of the Pictures at Althorp,” The Walpole Society 54 (1974–76), 76, no. 585. George Vertue, “Vertue Note Books volume II,” The Walpole Society 20 (1931–32), 16, refers to Epigrams upon the Paintings of the Most Eminent Masters, Ancient and Modern, with Reflexions upon the Several Schools of Painting, by J. E., Esq. (London, 1700). The verse in question is epigram 137. George Vertue, “Vertue Note Books Volume V,” The Walpole Society 26 (1937–38), 57, describes the connection between the artist and Robert Spencer: “Schalcken painted several pictures for Ld Sunderland which were to be seen amongst his collection—at his Seat in Northamtonshire [sic]—called Althorp—by this it appears that Noble Lord encouraged him and patronized his works.”
Thierry Beherman, Godfried Schalcken (Paris, 1988), no. 326; because Beherman had never seen the work with his own eyes, he incorrectly included it in his book as a copy. He also listed another copy that was in fact known to him. The National Gallery of Scotland lists at least five more copies; with thanks to Christian Tico Seiffert, senior curator. The large number of copies was undoubtedly prompted by the many prints published after this painting in the eighteenth century; the website of the British Museum gives the names of Richard Purcell (active ca. 1746–68), Philip Corbut (active ca. 1746–66), Charles Spooner (1720–67), Johan Faber the Younger (ca. 1695–1756), and James Wilson (active ca. 1760–80) as the makers of prints after the painting.
It is no coincidence that in 2006 this painting, which is not entirely convincing, was sold by Christie’s in Amsterdam as “attributed to Schalcken”; evidently the specialists at this auction house did not consider it a completely autograph work by the master.
On 26 July 1682, in Dordrecht, the banns (marriage announcements) of Maria Schalcken and Severijn van Bracht were published; Dordrecht city archives (Erfgoedcentrum DiEP), ONA 20.243 (unnumbered) Notary Govert de With, 20 April 1683. The couple had at least one daughter, Anna (b. 1683), and one son, Cornelis (b. 1685). In July 1700 her husband once again had his banns published, so by that time he was a widower. For her Self-Portrait at the Easel, incorrectly recorded by Beherman as a work by Godefridus, see Thierry Beherman, Godfried Schalcken (Paris, 1988), no. 61; for this very painting, now in the De Mol van Otterloo collection, see Frederik J. Duparc, et al. Golden: Dutch and Flemish Masterworks from the Rose-Marie and Eijk van Otterloo Collection (Exh. cat. Salem, Peabody Essex Museum; San Francisco, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco; Houston, Museum of Fine Arts Houston) (New Haven, 2011), 279–81, no. 57, with outdated biographical information. For more information about Maria, see Marloes Huiskamp’s note online, which includes several details supplied by myself.
This, at any rate, is the picture that emerges from the many notarial documents in Dordrecht and The Hague that bear Schalcken’s signature alongside those of various pupils.
“Den 11 Juny gongen wy by een Hollandse schilder genaamt Gramagli, welke een Discipel was geweest van Schalken; was een Portretschilder dog van de slegste soort.” Felix Driessen, De reizen der De la Courts 1641–1700–1710 (Leiden, 1928), 99. De la Court called the town Exon or Exchester. Nicolaas de Roever also knew this document, but had read the name of the painter as “Giamagli,” which is why Hofstede de Groot recorded him as such as a pupil of Schalcken in his Beschreibendes und kritisches Verzeichnis; this name was subsequently misspelled in yet another way by Beherman, who recorded it as “Giamali.” See Nicolaas de Roever, “Een bezoek aan den Ridder Adriaen van der Werff, kunstschilder, in 1710,” Oud Holland 5 (1887), 70; Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, Beschreibendes und kritisches Verzeichnis der Werke der hervorragendsten höllandischen Maler des XVII. Jahrhunderts, 10 vols. (Esslingen and Paris, 1907–28), 5:440; and Thierry Beherman, Godfried Schalcken (Paris, 1988), 28. Nothing else is known about this painter.
Harold E. Wethey, El Greco and His School, 2 vols. (Princeton, 1962), 2:78–79, nos. 121 and 122, and 2:195, nos. X-137–X-140, for the copies. See also David Davies, John H. Elliott, and Xavier Bray, El Greco (Exh. cat. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art; London, National Gallery) (London, 2003), 221–31, nos. 63/65.
Jan Lievens: A Dutch Master Rediscovered, ed. Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. (Exh. cat. Washington D.C., National Gallery of Art; Milwaukee, Milwaukee Art Museum; Amsterdam, Museum Het Rembrandthuis) (New Haven, 2008), 7–8, with ill.
Jan Bialostocki, “Puer sufflans ignes,” in The Message of Images: Studies in the History of Art (Vienna, 1988), 139–44. Pliny refers in his Naturalis historia at 34:79 and 35:138 to the two antique artworks, one by Lycius, the other by Antiphilus.